Sabtu, 26 Desember 2009

Oral Pharmacotherapy for Male Sexual Dysfunction

Sabtu, 26 Desember 2009
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Preface
For the generation that reached sexual maturity in the 1960s, the “pill” became synonymous with sexual freedom and started a sexual revolution. For women it meant freedom from the fear of pregnancy, and for men enhanced sexual opportunity. The new era of the pill has nothing to do with fertility, but everything to do with sex. The first orally effective prescription drug for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) was marketed in 1998. Sildenafil (Viagra®) has rejuvenated the aging male veterans of the sexual revolution, forever changed the science of sexual medicine, and transformed society’s perspective on aging and sex. This class of drugs, known as oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-type 5), is highly effective in the treatment of ED. Since its introduction there has been a much greater awareness of ED, its comorbidities, and its effects on the quality of life. In 1997, while preparing to address the Endocrine Society on the occasion of the 92nd American Urological Association meeting, I first looked at the preclinical studies of sildenafil. I thought “this will change everything” and it clearly has—changing practice patterns in sexual medicine, and the attitudes of patients, potential patients, and their partners. Two new PDE-type 5 inhibitors, tadalafil (Cialis®) and vardenafil (Levitra®), were first approved by the European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products and subsequently by the Food and Drug Administration in 2003 and 2004. The new PDE-5 inhibitors have given health care providers a choice in prescribing therapy for ED, but it remains to be seen whether these or subsequent agents will provide the opportunity to treat more patients or, for that matter, to treat the same patients more effectively and safely. Pharmacological management of ED can now be given as a tablet, as a sublingual preparation, as an intraurethral pellet, as a topical gel, and as an injection. Current lines of study are looking at inhalation as a faster route of treatment delivery. These various drugs work through differing physiological mechanisms: amplifying penile blood flow elicited by sexual stimulation, enhancing neural signaling, and in some instances can even induce erection without sexual stimulation.

This ebook can be download at:
http://www.4shared.com/account/file/182053059/591ad2b0/Oral_Pharmacotherapy_for_Male_.html

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Jumat, 25 Desember 2009

Burger's Medicinal chemistry and Drug discovery, Chemotherapeutic agents

Jumat, 25 Desember 2009
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Cancer is a major human health problem worldwide and is the second leading cause of death in the United States (1). Over the past 30 years, significant progress has been achieved in understanding the molecular basis of cancer. The accumulation of this basic knowledge has established that cancer is a variety of distinct diseases and that defective genes cause these diseases. Further, gene defects are diverse in nature and can involve either loss or gain of gene functions. A number of inherited syndromes associated with increased risk of cancer have been identified. This chapter will review our current understanding of the mechanisms of cancer development, or carcinogenesis, and the genetic basis of cancer. The roles of gene defects in both
germline and somatic cells will be discussed as they relate to genetic and sporadic forms of cancer. Specific examples of oncogenes, or cancer- causing genes, and tumor suppressor genes will be presented, along with descriptions of the relevant pathways that signal normal and cancer phenotypes.
This ebook can be download at:
http://www.4shared.com/account/file/180834044/57ebc111/Burgers_Medicinal_chemistry_an.html

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Jumat, 18 Desember 2009

Free radicals and antioxidant protocols, methods in molecular biology

Jumat, 18 Desember 2009
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Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs) affect normal physiological processes and pathological conditions. In spite of the development of analytical and technological advancements in the detection and determination of RONs, there is a growing demand to achieve more rapid and accurate detection and determination of RONs and also of redox stress. In order to satisfy such a demand, we chose to prepare this current volume which comprises 27 chapters contributed by world renowned experts on the state-ofthe- art analytical and technological aspects of the detection and determination of RONs, and oxidative, nitrative, nitrosative, and redox stresses in biological systems, in vitro and in vivo. There is a need to establish biomarkers for the oxidative stress-induced genetic damage in cellular and animal models. This need is addressed herein by offering protocols for (1) the generation of stable oxidative stress-resistant phenotypes of Chinese hamsters
fibroblasts, (2) in vivo detection and measurement of free radicals and oxygen, (3) in vivo determination of tissue and DNA damage as a result of radical exposure, and (4) in vivo and in vitro monitoring of footprints of free-radical and antioxidant reactions. In the sections dedicated to the analysis of antioxidants and their metabolites, we describe methods for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids, eugenol antioxidants, and the recycling of ascorbic and lipoic acids. We also report on cellular reductive capacity, determination of glutathione, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes under RONs stresses.

This ebook can be download at:
http://www.4shared.com/account/file/175876388/243f2f2f/Free_Radicals_and_Antioxidant_.html

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Oxidative stress and disease

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Oxidative stress is a major factor in health, aging, and disease and is often defined by the redox balance established by cellular oxidants and antioxidants. The ratio of reduced to oxidized levels of major low-molecular weight protein thiols, such as cysteine and glutathione or thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, is often used as a measure of oxidative stress. Among naturally occurring thiols, the discovery of a-lipoic acid has led to an unprecedented interest in basic research because of its role in energy metabolism and as an antioxidant for the treatment of certain
diseases. a-Lipoic acid has acquired importance because of its role as a coenzyme in the maintenance of energy metabolism, on one hand, and as an antioxidant and cell redox modulator, on the other hand. The former was supported by the discovery of the essential role of lipoic acid in mitochondrial dehydrogenasedriven reactions inherent in energy metabolism and the latter is supported by reduction of supplemental a-lipoic acid to dihydrolipoic acid in mammalian cells conferring further antioxidant protection. For example, lipoic acid is an essential cofactor of a-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes in eukaryotic cells as part of the
lipoyl domain of the E2 enzymes (dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases). Also,
exogenous R- (or RS)-lipoic acid is reduced by a flavoenzyme, dihydrolipoamide
dehydrogenase, of the complex in mitochondria. Hence lipoic acid may be a mitochondrial-targeted nutrient. The cell redox status is a critical factor regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and necrosis, and the mitochondrion is a center of interest for its role in the generation of signaling molecules (e.g., hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) that, in turn, modulates the redox status of the cell.
This ebook can be download at:
http://www.4shared.com/account/file/175862369/7fb98cd0/oxidative_stess_and_disease.html

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Selasa, 15 Desember 2009

Pharmaceutical Compounding and dispensing

Selasa, 15 Desember 2009
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This book has been written as a student guide to extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding and dispensing. It has been designed to assist the student compounder in understanding the key dosage forms encountered within extemporaneous dispensing. Included is a summary of the key principles relating to labelling and packaging, along with a summary of the formulation of each dosage type. In addition, worked examples and questions have been included to allow the compounder to practise extemporaneous formulation exercises.
http://www.4shared.com/account/file/174199763/4c4c87be/Pharmaceutical_compounding_and.html

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